An electronics component is any basic discrete device or physical entity in an electronic system used to affect electrons or their associated fields. Electronic components are mostly industrial producsts, available in a singular form and are not to be confused with electrical elements, which are conceptual abstractions representing idealized electronic components.
Electronic components have two or more electrical terminals or leads aside from antennas which may only have one terminal. These leads connect to create an electronic circuit with a particular function (for example an amplifier, radio receiver, or oscillator). Basic electronic components may be packaged discretely, as arays or networks of like components, or integrated inside of packages such as semiconductor integrated circuits, hybrid integrated circuits, or thick film devices. The following list of electronic components focuses on the discrete version of these components, treating on the discrete version of these components, treating such packages as components in their own right.
Components can be classified as passive, active, or electromechanic. The strict definition treats passive components as ones that cannot supply energy themselves, whereas a battery would be seen as an active component since it truely acts as a source of energy.
However, electronic engineers who perform circuit analysis use a more restrictive definition J of passivity. When only concerned with th energy of signals, it is convenient to ignore the so-called DC circuit and pretend that the power supplying components such as transistors or integrated circuits is absent (as if each such component had its own battery built in), though it may in reality be supplied by the DC circuit.Then, the analysis only concerns the AC circuit, an abstraction that ignores DC volages and currents(and the power associated with them) present in the real-life circuit. This fiction, for instance, lets us view an oscillator as "producing energy" even though in reality the oscillator consumes een more energy from a DC power supply, which we have chosen to ignore. Under that restriction, we define the terms as used in circuit analysis as:
Most passive components with more than two terminals can be described in terms of two-port parameteres that satisfy the principle of reciprocity--though there are rare exceptions. In contrast, active components(with more than two terminals) generally lack that property.
An active device is any type of circuit component with the ability to electrically control electron flow(electricity controlling electricity). In order for a circuit to be properly called electronic, it must contain at least one active device.
Diodes: Conduct electricity easily in one direction, among more specific behaviors.
Transistors were considered the invention of the twentieth century that changed electronic circuit forever. A transistor is a semiconductor device used to amplify and switch electronic signals and electrical power.
A vaccum tube is based on current conduction through a vaccum(see vaccum tube)
Components incapable of controlling current by means of another electrical signal are called pasive devices. Resistors, capacitors, inductors, transformers and even diodes are all considered passive devices.
Pass current in proportion to voltage(Ohm's law) and oppose current.
Capacitors store and release electrical charge. They are used for filtering power supply lines, tuning resonant circuits, and for blocking DC voltages while pasing AC signals, among numerous other uses.
Electrical components that use magnetism in the storage and release of electrical charge through current:
Electrical components that pass charge in proportion to magnetism or magnetic flux, and have ability to retain a previous resistive state, hence the name of Memory plus Resistor.
Components that use more than one type of passive component:
ANtennas transmits or receive radio waves
Multiple electronic components assembled in device that is in itself used as a component
Passive components that use piezoelectric effect
Devices to make electrical connection
Cables with connectors or terminals at their ends
Components that can pass current('closed') or break the flow of current('open'):
Passive components that protect circuits from excessive currents or voltages: